- Interactive Ebooks: What Are They and How to Make Them - PublishDrive
- Child Development From Infancy to Adolescence - Interactive eBook | SAGE Publications Inc
- Teaching: Making a Difference, 4th Edition
Parents either completed the survey while their child was participating in the study or were emailed a survey link after their child participated. Of particular interest was parent-reported use of print and eBooks at home.
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Parents were asked to rate how frequently their children use eBooks and print books e. Separate analyses of covariance ANCOVA were used to test the effect of interactivity non-interactive, relevant-interactive, irrelevant-interactive on two dependent variables: word learning and story comprehension.
Interactive Ebooks: What Are They and How to Make Them - PublishDrive
Thus, both ANCOVAs included age as a covariate, and the story comprehension analysis also included vocabulary and general story schema as covariates. Descriptive statistics, zero-order correlations, and partial correlations controlling for age. Preliminary analyses indicated that child sex, child race, parent-reported subjective social status, and parent-reported book use both print and electronic did not differ significantly across experimental conditions. Moreover, these characteristics did not predict performance on any of the outcome measures, so they were not considered further.
Mean number of correct responses for the word-learning test as a function of age group and condition. Age was a continuous predictor in analyses but is depicted here as two median-split groups for illustration only.
The y axis represents the possible range of scores from 0 to 5. The horizontal dashed line represents chance at a score of 1. Mean story comprehension as a function of age and condition. Story comprehension was operationalized as a tau correlation between the story sequence produced by the child and the correct story sequence. The y axis represents the possible range of scores from —1 to 1.
The horizontal dashed line represents a correlation of zero i. Such mixed findings may be partly due to differences in the type of learning that is assessed and in the relevance and complexity of the interactive features. In order to maintain high experimental control, the interactive features in the relevant and irrelevant conditions were simple and similar in nature i. These features were designed to direct visual attention toward relevant or away from irrelevant target objects. Contrary to predictions, these simple interactive features did not appear to affect learning.
Child Development From Infancy to Adolescence - Interactive eBook | SAGE Publications Inc
Information processing theories posit that the extent to which young children learn from educational media will depend partly on the extent to which the story content and interactive features increase cognitive load Strommen, ; Fisch, Researchers such as Bus et al. Previous research suggests that simple, relevant hotspots can increase learning from eBooks Smeets and Bus, while complex, irrelevant features such as mini-games disrupt word learning Takacs et al.
In the case of print books, even simple irrelevant interactivity i. However, in the current study we found no evidence that simple relevant features increase word learning or that simple irrelevant features disrupt word learning, compared to a non-interactive eBook. Our irrelevant feature was intended to direct attention away from target objects. However, the scripted timing of these features may have ameliorated any potential negative effect on word learning.
While some eBooks have interactive hotspots that children can activate at any point in the story e. Perhaps interactive features — at least simple, short ones — have minimal effect at these scripted breaks. Conversely, our relevant interactive feature may have had little benefit for word learning because it did not introduce any new information that would help children learn the word.
Our relevant features only served to direct visual attention to the target objects as they were revealed. We may have seen a more obvious effect of relevant interactivity if the relevant features added new content, such as repeating or defining each word Smeets and Bus, It is also important to note that in order to ensure word learning from a single exposure, the story itself was fairly simple: there were few visual distractors on the page other than the ones we put there intentionally , There was a predictable format each time a new target object was found, the novel label was repeated several times per object, and the label was provided both before and after the object was revealed.
It may be that simple, irrelevant features have little impact when there is so much other support for word learning. Future research could test the extent to which the structure, predictability, and timing of interactive features have an impact on learning from eBooks. Although the book was simple and contained many supports for word learning e. This average is better than chance 1. It is possible that the butterfly, which appeared on each page in all three conditions, and whose location changed from one page to the next, created a visual distraction in all conditions regardless of interactivity.
Future research could test systematically the extent to which word learning from eBooks is affected by the amount and complexity of visual distractors on the page. Additionally, future research could use alternative assessments for word learning that focus on depth of word knowledge e. The erroneous selection of familiar objects from the story suggests that although children could not always remember the exact object-label pairing from the book, they were able to recognize which objects were from the story.
Put differently, the likelihood that children selected an object from the book was far greater than chance, but the likelihood that they then distinguished between those objects based on their novel label was not. Nonetheless, the likelihood that children chose the familiar distractor did not differ by condition, and so was not affected by interactivity. Contrary to previous research de Jong and Bus, ; Chiong et al. One previous study Lauricella et al. Again, perhaps the interactive features were well-enough embedded into the story to ameliorate any negative impact of interactivity on story comprehension, particularly given that children were only allowed to use the interactive features during scripted pauses in the story.
As noted previously, the goal of the current study was not to test the impact of maximally distracting eBook features. Rather, the goal was to isolate one factor that could affect learning from eBooks i. In doing so, we found that interactive features — whether relevant or irrelevant to the story — had little impact on story comprehension when those interactive features were simple animations that advanced the story.
Future studies could adopt a similar experimental approach to isolate other factors and examine eBooks that incorporate more elaborate disruptive features with visual, auditory, and haptic cues, such as mini-games, to distract the reader. One important limitation of the current study that should be addressed in future research is the homogeneity of this convenience sample: children were predominantly white with highly educated, well-off parents who reported reading print books to their children daily and limiting screen time.
Teaching: Making a Difference, 4th Edition
It remains to be seen whether these findings would be replicated in children who have other demographic characteristics, have less access to print books and lower existing story schema, or are more likely to engage in shared screen time with their parents. Furthermore, in order to isolate causal mechanisms, an unfamiliar experimenter read the eBooks to children using a well-rehearsed script. Research has shown that the implicit understanding of how far along you are in a story increases the enjoyment of reading a physical book.
In contrast, the inability to visualise progress arguably makes using an ebook a somewhat shallow and unsatisfactory experience. Similarly, the tactile element, not only of reading a physical book, but browsing and buying within a real bookstore is also preferable. As a result, more and more online retailers are meeting the demand by entering into the physical realm. Amazon — a retailer that has dominated the book industry in recent years — opened its first ever bricks-and-mortar book shop in Waterstones has also stopped selling the Kindle in its UK stores, instead choosing to use the space for hardback and paperback books.
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