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Although the renewed insurgency petered out within a year, following assurances that the PAP payouts to ex-militants will not be stopped; and the stepping up of several special military operations in the region, protests, and attacks continue to occur episodically in the Niger Delta. Thus the trajectories of oil politics in the Niger Delta reflect the mix between the militarism, opportunism, and the militarization of resource governance in the region.
In spite of the expansion of democratic space to accommodate a vast array of elected and appointed political office holders and non-military actors, high levels of political violence persist both for expressing grievance or protest, or as deployed by the state and private security apparatus of oil companies seeking to protect and facilitate the conditions for oil extraction.
It also facilitates an understanding of how elite coalitions organize themselves to contest for power, partly using the threat of or capacity to mobilize violence when negotiating their place in relation to asserting power over state-controlled oil revenues. Violence is therefore not just the means to but is also embedded in the end, winning the ultimate political prize—power to control and distribute oil revenues. However, this perspective to local politics in the Niger Delta is unable to unpack the specificities of how political settlements include local refractions of the political economy of transnational or global capital.
While describing some of the organizing principles of complex elite political configurations in the context of contestations over high oil stakes, there is still a need to unravel the ways in which local refractions of the dialectics of global oil power reflect the antinomies of a fractious petrolized Nigerian state.
African oil producers struggle to adapt as oil prices drop | Africa | DW |
The foregoing sections point to how the Nigerian petro-state engages international politics, reflecting both the nature of its integration into the global political economy of oil and the local refractions of global oil politics. While noting how contestations for oil power fuel violent politics, it also underlines how fractious petro-elites engage in zero-sum struggles for the capture of state power, giving it a rather unstable character.
The Nigerian case helps illustrate how oil continues to play a central role in shaping the capacity of other African petro-states to engage in international politics, perhaps even going as far as setting limits on their forays into the international arena and keeping them within the global division of oil labor that consigns petro-states in the developing world to the role of suppliers of crude oil and gas to the global market.
These political forces are often ambivalent, pitched against the petro-state, which relies on a mixture of violence, and colluding with it in negotiating political settlements for access to power and control of oil. In this connection, it is therefore impossible to completely separate the local from global politics in Nigeria, a case that equally holds true for other African petro-states like Angola, Algeria, Gabon, Libya, and South Sudan. However, it is also impossible to simply assume the global political economy of oil is completely free of local cooptation and manipulation by African states, which also influence the politics of an international community that is addicted to oil and keen to ensure uninterrupted supplies of oil and lucrative investments in the growing African oil sector.
Contestations over oil power in the various African petro-states will continue at various levels and intensities to shape their domestic and international politics in the world for the foreseeable future. The key driving elements of oil and the international politics of African oil states, old and new, will largely be influenced by the economic, energy security, and strategic significance of oil.
It will also be shaped by global politics related to climate and environmental changes linked to the oil pollution and the global securitization of the continent. It also partly suggests that Africans, both from oil-rich and non-oil-producing countries, will continue to bear the brunt of oil politics, particularly the price fluctuations, and the militarization of oil extraction and the security of petro-states.
Petro-politics has so far failed to transform African oil-producing countries, which remain intricately tied to the global political economy of oil. The prospects for any radical change or development will for the foreseeable future hang between the complex petro-politics and a clear shift in the balance of power between the highly fractious elites that have captured power in African petro-states, African people, and the centers of power in the global political economy of oil. Akpabio, E. Journal of Human Ecology , 30 2 , — Find this resource:.
Akpomera, E. International crude oil theft: Elite predatory tendencies in Nigeria. Review of African Political Economy , 42 , — Busby, J. Climate change and collective action: Troubles in the transition to a post-oil economy. Chikhi, L. As oil prices languish, signs emerge of Algeria changing its ways. Reuters , May Coleman, P. Top10 oil and gas companies in the world. Energy Digital Magazine , March Corkin, L. Ebiede, T. Beyond rebellion: Uncaptured dimensions of violent conflicts and the implications for peacebuilding in the Niger Delta.
African Security , 10 1 , 25— Eke, S. No pay, no peace: Political settlement and post-amnesty violence in the Niger Delta. Journal of Asian and African Studies , 50 6 , — Hamouchere, H. New Nationalist , June 1. Hruby, D. But not here. Washington Post , July Ibeanu, O. Janus unbound: Petrobusiness and petropolitics in the Niger Delta.
Review of African Political Economy , 29 91 , — Kuol, L. Navigating the competing interests of regional actors in South Sudan. African Center for Strategic Studies, May Lewis, I. Petroleum Economist , August 1. Lewis, P. Blood and oil: A special report; after Nigeria represses, Shell defends its record. New York Times , February Lowi, M. Oil wealth and the poverty of politics: Algeria compared.
Cambridge, U. Marchand, C. Fossil fuels in the energy mix. IEC e-tech , 7. Lalji, N. The resource curse revised. Harvard International Review , 29 3 , 34— Sala-i-Martin, X. Addressing the natural resource curse: An illustration from Nigeria. Journal of African Economies , 22 4 , — Mbah, F. South Sudan: Oil revival to boost economic recovery. Al Jazeera , August More than year journey.
Egypt Oil and Gas , December Obi, C. Canadian Journal of Development Studies , 30 1—2 , Extractive Industries and Society , 1 2 , — Understanding the resource curse effect: Instability and violent conflict in Africa. Crocker Eds. Moyo Eds. Newcastle upon Tyne, U. Nordic Africa Institute, Uppsala, November, 21— London, U. Ogundipe, S.
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Niger Delta Avengers calls off ceasefire with Nigerian govt. Premium Times , November 3. Oguine, I. Journal of Energy and Natural Resources Law , 17 , 2. Ogunnubi, H. A failing regional power? The oil industry and its effect on global politics. Olufemi, J. Nigeria spends N4. Premium Times , June Oluwaniyi, O. However, only 1 decimal seems to be shown in Beta.
It would be more useful and helpful for research if some options for more decimal place were added or units could be modified e. We are currently working on updating the number of decimal places for more specificity.
Building Africa’s Oil and Gas Future
Thank you. All headers for each country are shown as having equal value to the country itself so the data cannot be sorted without losing the country identification. Column B makes every heading equal i. It is unfortunate that a download cannot be directly used but it is frustrating that as an expert Excel user I cannot easily determine a way to organize the data in a way that makes it usable.
Thanks, Art Berman. Sorry you are having trouble with the data download, please try the following. Other Liquids includes biodiesel, ethanol, liquids produced from coal, gas, and oil shale, Orimulsion, and other hydrocarbons. However, it would be great if you could mention how much of India's energy especially oil and gas imports come by sea, in order to get a clearer picture of India's energy imports. Excellent, by the way.
OPEC report on revenue is very informative. Our governments always keep us in the dark. Well researched, clear figures and graphs. Today I simply want to view the imports of crude oil in bbld in South Africa. BTU is a completely unhelpful metric. Customary system, Metric, or another measurement option of your choosing. Very well researched, clear and easy figures and graphs. Well organised too. Incredible useful!
However, i'm struggling to cite the South African country analysis report You can download PDF files for all of the countries with a detailed energy analysis. My students like it as well. Thanks a lot! Data in the previous years was available up to 5 decimal places. However, data is available with only 1 decimal place this year through the beta interface and comparing countries became a challenge because there are too many countries with the same values now.
Is there a way to download the full data-set with all the decimal points available?
Thank you for contacting EIA. The one I have obtained is Country analyses are updated on a periodic basis, the analysis for Malaysia is the most current. You are correct, not all countries, including in this case Israel, have detailed analysis briefs. Exactly what I needed to bring me up to speed for my research on Michigan and on the Midwest - thanks!
Mike at McGuire Research. It should be easy to get a nice graph of yours. Our maps and graphs are available for download, and are also easily embeddable for use on external websites, blogs, and newsletters. Simply click the 'Download' button adjacent to a map or graphic and you will be presented with a variety of format options.
I looked at your Excel download function and examined your Excel spreadsheet. It appears that if I am going to load the data into my spreadsheets, I will have to do one line at a time, each country individualy. EIA offers an Excel Add-in that will allow you to simplify your spreadsheet work. Great to see such an informed analysis presented with tables to illustrate it. Having global data is definitely a plus. Too bad data goes up to and does not include and Comments coming from an IT manager used to major systems with large databases.
Thank you for your feedback! We are constantly adding new data series' to our database, data for current years will be added as it is available. This tool makes my job much easier. Really appreciate you guys going the extra mile with your data tools, this makes my research so much more effective. You guys have been an utter joy to work with not a typical experience for government bureaucracy , and this new beta is the icing on the cake. Thanks for the hard work you have put in to make this information clear and understandable!
Looking forward to seeing what you guys cook up in the future. Why can't I download multiple years? You can download all of the international data as spreadsheets. To do this, select the country, or countries, and fuel source s you would like to see data for and click the download button. Directly beneath the animation controls This will give you the option to download the displayed data in a variety of ways, including as a spreadsheet. I like the granularity provided, by country by month. Unfortunately it seems from the beta site, that I can only access the annual data and only download as a CSV file.
Is that correct? The monthly data is being migrated to the new tool shortly. I am writing a book chapter and referenced your site, where I found terrific info on India and Japan several months ago. Unfortunately, it appears you deleted those pages. It is very wonderful: I love learning about this stuff! Before the layout, I was able to find annual s of net exports of petro for each country, and now I have no idea where it is. Click the Data tab and then use the "Select Data" and "Select Countries" buttons to choose which fuel source s and which countries you'd like to see the data for.
The data tab. The new look is too complicated for me. The spreadsheet is more easily used for good analysis. You can also select all countries. Consumption, production, etc. Thanks for writing in. If the country has a full write-up a full brief, more than just bullets , we do offer a PDF.
If you are looking to PDF other sections of the site the country overview page, for example , you can use any number of free, open source packages to create a PDF. They typically use your computer's "print" function, but instead of using a printer, they produce a PDF on your computer's hard drive. Policy for public posting of feedback submitted during beta testing of EIA experimental web products:. South Africa has a large energy-intensive coal mining industry. The country has limited proved reserves of oil and natural gas and uses its large coal deposits to meet most of its energy needs, particularly in the electricity sector.
South Africa also has a sophisticated synthetic fuels industry, producing gasoline and diesel fuels from the Secunda coal-to-liquids and Mossel Bay gas-to-liquids plants. South Africa's energy sector is critical to its economy, as the country relies heavily on its large-scale, energy-intensive coal mining industry. South Africa has limited proved reserves of oil and natural gas and uses its large coal deposits to meet most of its energy needs, particularly in the electricity sector.
Most of the oil consumed in the country, used mainly in the transportation sector, is imported from Middle Eastern and West African producers in the Organization of the Petroleum Exporting Countries OPEC and is locally refined. South Africa also has a sophisticated synthetic fuels industry, producing gasoline and diesel fuels from the Secunda coal-to-liquids CTL plant and the Mossel Bay gas-to-liquids GTL plant. The synthetic fuels industry accounts for nearly all of the country's domestically produced petroleum because crude oil production is very small.
The South African government has committed to ensuring that black-owned companies have access to energy and mining sector activities under its Black Economic Empowerment BEE program. According to a study by the U. Energy Information Administration EIA , South Africa holds the eighth-largest technically recoverable shale gas resources in the world trillion cubic feet primarily located in the Karoo basin.
The South African government hopes that shale gas will provide the country with a reliable alternative fuel to coal. However, regulatory uncertainty and environmental concerns have delayed exploration. Some progress was recently made when the Petroleum Agency South Africa PASA announced that it would start processing existing applications for exploration permits in late Sasol, a privately owned company based in South Africa, operates the Secunda CTL plant, has a majority interest in the Natref oil refinery, partially owns the pipeline transporting natural gas from Mozambique to South Africa, and is involved in coal mining.
South Africa has several government agencies and companies involved in the coal, natural gas, and oil sectors. The government has said it will clamp down on graft. The Dutch company Brunel no longer wants to do business in Nigeria. It says the country is too corrupt. But Nigeria's new President, Muhammadu Buhari, appears serious about cracking down on bribery and fraud. Ghanaian gold mines surpass South Africa - Saudi calls on oil producers to meet output limits - German carmakers facing uphill struggle.
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More info OK. Wrong language? Change it here DW. COM has chosen English as your language setting. COM in 30 languages. Deutsche Welle. Audiotrainer Deutschtrainer Die Bienenretter. Africa African oil producers struggle to adapt as oil prices drop The big players in Africa's oil industry are meeting in Cape Town to discuss the ongoing turmoil in the industry. Deep trouble Angola is one of Africa's biggest oil producing countries and has been hit hard.
How will countries like Angola and Nigeria survive the staggering drop in oil Prices? India's Modi sets sights on Africa As China's slowdown impacts ties with Africa, India is seeking to step in and boost political and economic relations with the continent. Nigeria widens oil corruption probe Nigeria has arrested the head of a major local oil firm only a day after the oil giant's former petroleum minister was arrested in the UK on corruption charges. Nigeria: Corruption scares off companies The Dutch company Brunel no longer wants to do business in Nigeria.
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